A Guide to Types of CBD Product

An how to take them

By Marc Lewis

You’ll see CBD products for sale online in many different forms, including capsules, oils, topical balms, vaporizers, and gummies. It can be quite confusing.

  • What are the different types of products?
  • How do they work?
  • What should you buy?

We’ll talk about all those questions and more in this guide to CBD products.

Types of CBD products

Unlike many nutritional or dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration has not created a Recommended Daily Intake framework or consumption guidelines for CBD products, leaving consumers left to sort out competing information as to the best consumption method.

Some of the most common types of CBD products include CBD oils, CBD capsules, CBD gummies, and CBD products for vaping.

Here’s a quick look at each type of CBD product:

Oils & Tinctures

CBD oils come in a variety of forms and flavors. Some are highly purified forms of CBD that contain no THC. Others are what we call “full plant products,” or full-spectrum oils. Full-spectrum products will include other cannabinoids, like low levels of THC.

CBD oils typically require the lowest dose since they are so pure, but many have an “earthy” taste, which can be tough to swallow.

CBD tinctures are CBD oils that include flavor additives. CBD tinctures are extractions from the cannabis plant that have been steeped and infused with solvents to create a concentrated liquid. CBD tinctures are highly pure and, like CBD oils, can be taken sublingually, with food, or mixed into a drink. 

How to Take

Simply place a dose of oil directly into your mouth or under the tongue. We recommend holding the oil under your tongue for up to a minute. This may help your body absorb the cannabinoids. You can also add CBD oils to your favorite food or drink.

To find the right dose of CBD it’s best to start slow and work your way up. Pay attention to how the oil makes you feel and take your time. It also may be best to take a CBD oil regularly so the cannabinoids can collect in your system.

Titrating is easier with brands that have clearly labeled products. All oils are not the same, so pay attention to label strengths.

Isolates

CBD isolate are CBD crystals that are derived and extensively refined from industrial hemp. CBD isolate is most often pulverized into a powder. They are what is known as a “single molecule CBD” and are less potent than oil-rich CBD products.

CBD isolate oils are also popular. These products contain no cannabinoids other than CBD. Isolate liquids can also be heated and vaporized.

Because cannabinoids have a higher therapeutic value when they work together, we recommend full-spectrum products, versus concentrated CBD products, unless you have a specific reasons for avoiding the small amounts of THC.

Capsules

CBD capsules are akin to taking a daily vitamin or nutritional supplement. Each capsule contains a set amount of CBD, typically between 10 and 25 mg, and is an easy way to keep track of your daily CBD consumption. These pills are great for people who want a simple, discrete delivery of cannabinoids. They are also really nice for controlling dosages.

Gummies

Gummies come in a wide range of textures and flavors. They may include added sugar or preservatives. These products are great for people who want to ingest CBD but avoid the flavors of hemp. They are also very discrete, if you want to take a hemp supplement at work.

The downside of hemp gummies is how inconsistently the products are made. You need to be especially careful to buy gummies from a reputable dealer to make sure you’re getting your money’s worth.

Topicals

Lotions, salves, soaks, and balms allow users to absorb CBD through the skin. Topicals can help with pain, inflammation, or joint issues. Many people are using CBD creams to recover after workouts, to manage chronic pain, or simply to nourish and hydrate skin.

Hemp lotions are great moisturizers, you just want to shop for quality products. Lower-quality natural lotions tend to leave a greasy residue.

How to Use

Apply to the skin as you would any other moisturizing lotion or pain cream. These creams may be used in addition to your existing treatment or beauty routine, or may replace other over-the-counter products.

Experiment with your skin care products and build a self-care routine that makes you feel better in your skin. Hemp products may help you relieve tension and manage the everyday stress that builds up in your muscles and joints.

Vapes

CBD vaporization is designed to deliver CBD through the lungs. Although the amount of CBD delivered through vaping can be inconsistent based on the inhalation amount, studies have shown that gas vapors can deliver therapeutic CBD doses, making it a popular CBD product.

You will also feel the effects of a vape faster than products that are swallowed.

Note

Because of recent illnesses and deaths related to poorly made and counterfeit vape products, we no longer recommend them. At least until there are frameworks in place to protect consumers.

Effectiveness, Prices, and Concentrations

As an unregulated market, there are no measurement or purity guidelines for CBD products, creating a vast disparity in CBD product pricing. A Brightfield Group report found the following spending trends:

  • Approximately 44 percent of CBD users spend between $20 and $80 a month for CBD products.
  • Roughly 13 percent spend more than $160 each month.
  • A handful of users spent over $600 per month.

Another study conducted by Leafly aggregated the price of CBD products and compared the price per milligram. The author found a wide disparity in prices, ranging from $0.05 per mg to $0.60 per mg, with a median price of $0.11 per mg.

According to the World Health Organization, most clinical trials and research studies administer CBD products orally or sublingually, and typical dosage ranges from 100 mg to 800 mg per day. Other scientific guidelines suggest a maximum of 300 mg per day.

Why Should You Consider the Bioavailability of CBD?

The method you use to consume medicine, whether by pill, injection or ointment, determines the amount of the drug that is absorbed into the circulatory system unphased. This is called bioavailability. If 100mg of a drug is administered orally, but only 50mg of the drug is absorbed and appears in the blood’s plasma, it is said to have a bioavailability of 50%.

The bioavailability of various forms of CBD determines its effectiveness. Some methods of consuming CBD are more effective than others. Understanding bioavailability is an important tool in maximizing your experience with CBD.

How do you determine a product’s bioavailability, and how can you get the most benefit?

Can You Reach 100% Bioavailability?

Why don’t all forms of CBD have 100% bioavailability? The answer has to do with the path the dosage takes inside the body. Most intravenous therapies will have 100% bioavailability due to the fact that the drug directly enters the bloodstream without interference or metabolism by the liver and other tissues. However, you will be hard-pressed to find any IV-administered CBD products.

Ranking Bioavailability of Different CBD Products

How do the most popular forms of CBD fare in bioavailability? We rank them from least effective to most effective.

4. Oral

When you swallow CBD oil in a salad dressing or even in a beverage, much of the product is diminished in the stomach, liver, and intestines before being absorbed into the bloodstream. This first pass metabolism, especially within the liver, which transforms a large portion of the CBD into metabolites that are later excreted when you go to the bathroom. In fact, less than 8% of the dosage may be absorbed when swallowed.

That means oral administration of CBD is not the most efficient method of consumption. Unfortunately, edible CBD oil is also one of the most popular and available forms of CBD.

3. Transdermal

While transdermal (absorbed through the skin) CBD products have not been extensively researched, you may still experience greater benefits from CBD-infused lotions or gels. Why? Because unlike oral products, these products do not get metabolized within the digestive system. Transdermal bioavailability was found to be superior to oral bioavailability in some arthritic studies on knee-joint swelling in rats.

There are other advantages to transdermal CBD products as well. Since transdermal administration is absorbed slowly, CBD’s effects will be steady and prolonged over time. CBD patches and gels also allow you to target localized pain or inflammation, which is not easy to do with oral or vape products.

2. Sublingual Tinctures

A sublingual tincture is a liquid extraction that is kept under the tongue for about a minute to be absorbed. This may sound similar to an edible or pill, but tinctures are not swallowed until after the CBD is absorbed. Therefore, they don’t undergo first pass metabolism in the digestive system. Instead, the product enters the bloodstream through mucus membranes (transmucosal) under the tongue.

Bioavailability for tinctures is somewhere between 12-35%. The dosage will be absorbed faster than a pill or edible, but residue from food or smoking can affect absorption. If you want a fast and easy method with more impact, choose a sublingual tincture over a traditional oral product.

1. Vapor

At 40% bioavailability (more or less), vaporizing or inhaling CBD is much more effective than oral administration and nearly all other consumption methods. Sure, it’s not an IV, but it gives fast results without requiring large or excessive doses.

When you inhale CBD, the large surface area of your lungs allows for more CBD to be absorbed and directly enter the bloodstream. You can also increase the effects of the CBD by manipulating the temperature of your vape device, as well as other factors.

Inhaling CBD is not the most effective method for localized pain, but its enhanced bioavailability may be better for immediate relief for stress and anxiety.

Is the Highest Bioavailability Always the Best?

Bioavailability is important, but it isn’t the only factor you should consider when researching CBD products. Sure, rectal CBD products may have higher bioavailability, but a suppository may not sound very inviting. Maybe swallowing pills is difficult for you, so capsules are not feasible. Or, maybe a product with high bioavailability is not as accessible or affordable in your area. When you choose a CBD product, bioavailability should be just one of many considerations.

How Do I Know My CBD is Working?

It can be difficult to tell whether or not a product is working right away. This can take some experimentation with dosing. You should always consult a healthcare professional before changing doses with any therapy or substance, but gradually increasing your dose of CBD may prove fruitful, especially for oral products with low bioavailability.

You may also look for products considered “full spectrum.” Full spectrum CBD products, unlike isolates which solely contain CBD, may result in greater therapeutic value, because many other cannabinoids and terpenes work together. If, however, you don’t want to consume any THC, which has psychoactive effects, you may also try broad-spectrum products. By using products with other cannabinoids, you are more likely to get the full effects of your CBD and feel the product working.

But before you throw away a product that you believe isn’t working, consider these issues that you may have overlooked:

  • Is your product from a reputable source? Look for third-party lab tests that indicate the actual amount of CBD in the product.
  • Let the CBD build up in your body. Some individuals require a daily dose of CBD to sustain the perfect amount in their system.
  • Be patient. You may not notice a difference in the first day, week or even month.

Before Buying CBD

While the World Health Organization reports that there is no evidence of any public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD, the report also found that “adverse effects may be as a result of drug-drug interactions between CBD and patients’ existing medications.” This means that it is crucial to research CBD products and brands to know precisely how they will interact with any existing medication.

Consumer Reports and Project CBD recommend taking the following steps in order to properly vet and assess CBD products:

  • Medical ProfessionalTalk with your doctor before taking any CBD products, especially if you’re on any prescription medication.
  • IngredientsVerify that the CBD product specifically contains CBD, not just “cannabinoids.” If a product does not disclose the amount of CBD, it is possible that the product contains other compounds found in cannabis, such as the stem.
  • Serving guidelinesLook for products that list the amount of CBD (in mg or ml) per serving, not just per bottle.
  • ReportingSelect companies located in states that have legalized the recreational and medical use of cannabis, since they tend to have stricter standards.
  • Third Party TestingResearch companies that contract with third-party testers for additional analysis beyond the state requirements.
  • TransparencyAlso look for companies that post the results online and explicitly state the amount of CBD, and that the product is free of contaminants.
  • Current Good Manufacturing PracticeFinally, look to see if the company is following the FDA’s Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMPs), which is the main regulatory standard for ensuring pharmaceutical products are safe and effective.

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Product Breakthroughs and Regulations

The legal and regulatory framework surrounding CBD production is slowly changing. Given the long list of promising medical breakthroughs, from epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and schizophrenia, to chronic pain management and anxiety, there is considerable effort underway to change state and federal laws regulating CBD products.

Most recently, the Food and Drug Administration approved  a prescription drug called Epidolex, which is made from marijuana and CBD is its active ingredient. The drug has been found to cut seizures by 40 percent in patients with two forms of epilepsy.

Additionally, NORML, a marijuana advocacy group, estimates that as of July 2018, all but three states have some form of law supporting recreational marijuana, medical marijuana, or CBD products.

Finally, federal lawmakers are working to loosen restrictions on hemp and CBD products. The 2018 Farm Bill includes language that legalizes hemp and the cannabinoids that are extracted from the plant, including CBD. The Senate passed the legislation with overwhelming bipartisan support in June, but the bill must still work its way through the House of Representatives.

The Farm Bill is an annual appropriations bill that includes contentious policy provisions such as funding for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), environmental regulations, commodity credits, and many other spending programs. The House and Senate must reconcile and pass the same version, and it is likely that some lawmakers might object to certain provisions, potentially jeopardizing the entire bill.

In addition to the Farm Bill, two Kentucky lawmakers have introduced complimentary legislation in the House and Senate that would legalize the production of hemp and CBD products. These include:

  • S 2667 (Hemp Farming Act of 2018): Introduced by Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-KY). The bill would legalize and clearly define hemp as an agricultural commodity and remove it from the list of controlled substances. The legislation was later incorporated into the 2018 Farm Bill.
  • HR 5485 (Hemp Farming Act of 2018): Introduced by Rep. James Corner (R-KY). The bill would grant state and tribal regulators authority to regulate hemp production.

Shop Smart

When shopping for hemp products, it’s important to buy from brands you can trust. Visit the overview of our Seal of Approval to learn about how we test products for quality and safety.

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